Informational networks and innovation in mature industrial clusters
By: Casanueva, Cristóbal; Castro, Ignacio; Galán, José L. Journal of Business Research. May2013, Vol. 66 Issue 5, p603-613. 11p.
Abstract: The position of a firm in inter-organizational networks that occur in geographic clusters can affect innovation. This study analyzes a wide range of ties and how they impact on the transmission of tacit and explicit knowledge. Thus, a firm''s position influences its innovative performance in different ways, according to the type of network—tacit or explicit—and the type of innovation—process or product—under analysis. Few empirical studies have analyzed the relation between social networks and innovation in mature geographic clusters; an appropriate context bearing in mind the contingent nature of the relations under study. The results support the idea that a central position in both tacit and explicit knowledge networks is especially significant in the case of product innovation, but that the influence of structural holes is weaker. These findings contribute to the literature on clusters and social networks by explaining how strategic management of positions in knowledge networks can improve the innovative performance of a firm. [Copyright &y& Elsevier] DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.02.043. (AN: 86155827)
Are all startups affected similarly by clusters? Agglomeration, competition, firm heterogeneity, and survival
By: Pe'er, Aviad; Keil, Thomas. Journal of Business Venturing. May2013, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p354-372. 19p.
Abstract: Are all startups similarly affected by the survival benefits and drawbacks of locating in geographic clusters? In this paper, we argue that prior theorizing may have missed important contingencies that affect whether a startup experiences the benefits and costs of locating in a cluster. In particular, while the local levels of skilled labor, suppliers, and purchasers have a beneficial influence and local competition has a detrimental influence on startup survival, these relationships are moderated by heterogeneity in firms'' resources and capabilities. We find support for these arguments using a dataset covering the early life of all independent startups in the Canadian manufacturing sector from 1984 to 1998. [Copyright &y& Elsevier] DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2012.03.004. (AN: 86420113)
Clusters, Connectivity and Catch-up: Bollywood and Bangalore in the Global Economy
By: Lorenzen, Mark; Mudambi, Ram. Journal of Economic Geography. May2013, Vol. 13 Issue 3, p501-534. 34p.
Abstract: In this article, we make two important contributions to the literature on clusters. First, we provide a broader theory of cluster connectivity that has hitherto focused on organization-based pipelines and MNE subsidiaries, by including linkages in the form of personal relationships. Second, we use the lens of social network theory to derive a number of testable propositions. We propose that global linkages with decentralized network structures have the highest potential for local spillovers. In the emerging economy context, our theory implies that clusters linked to the global economy by decentralized pipelines have potential for in-depth catch-up, focused in industry and technology scope. In contrast, clusters linked through decentralized personal relationships have potential for in-breadth catch-up over a range of related industries and technologies. We illustrate our theoretical propositions by contrasting two emerging economy case studies: Bollywood, the Indian filmed entertainment cluster in Mumbai and the Indian software cluster in Bangalore. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER] (AN: 86865750)
Competence resource specialization, causal ambiguity, and the creation and decay of competitiveness: the role of marketing strategy in new product performance and shareholder value
By: Hansen, Jared; McDonald, Robert; Mitchell, Ronald. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. May2013, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p300-319. 20p.
Abstract: Marketing strategists should create, maintain, and arrest the decay of causally ambiguous resource competences that lead to competitiveness and thus performance. However, competence causal ambiguity, which helps create competitiveness, is also implicated in competitiveness decay. In this study we test a model of specialization-competitiveness-performance using primary and secondary data from 169 public respondents/firms, to examine the effects of negative internal barriers to replication and adaptation. These barriers develop due to resource lock-in arising from the same specialization processes that lead to the positive barriers to imitation that deter competitors. Results suggest that commitment to learning can mitigate resource lock-in problems with internal competence causal ambiguity, competence causal ambiguity among competitors appears more essential to competitiveness in more competitive markets, competitiveness positively relates to both shareholder value and new product performance, and an increased differential focus on marketing versus operations in the organization strengthens the positive bridge between organizational competitiveness and shareholder return. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1007/s11747-012-0316-3. (AN: 86401560)
From innovation to commercialization through networks and agglomerations: analysis of sources of innovation, innovation capabilities and performance of Dutch SMEs
By: Hemert, Patricia; Nijkamp, Peter; Masurel, Enno. Annals of Regional Science. Apr2013, Vol. 50 Issue 2, p425-452. 28p.
Abstract: This study claims that policy makers may not be sufficiently aware of the importance of maintaining an appropriate balance between exploration and exploitation networks for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). On the basis of the open innovation model, policy makers are also increasingly stimulating SMEs to develop their exploration skills. In the Netherlands, a government subsidy called the 'innovation voucher programme' was introduced to stimulate SMEs to develop innovation in cooperation with knowledge institutes. Yet, although many studies show that SMEs tend to have a higher R&D productivity than larger firms, and innovative SMEs are more likely to make external networks with other SMEs or institutions such as universities, there is still little examination of the successfulness of SME's innovation activities. The growing policy attention for the role of SMEs in innovation prompts the questions how innovation in SMEs can be facilitated, and which factors contribute to the success (or failure) of their innovation efforts. This study explores the innovation strategy of innovative Dutch SMEs by means of their sources of innovation, innovation capabilities, innovation performance, and commercialization sources. By means of structural equation modelling of a sample of 243 Dutch SMEs, this study shows that exploring (technology) opportunity together with institutions such as universities and private research establishments is important for successful innovation in SMEs. But, in addition, our model shows that contacts with competitors are also important for successful innovation performance. Our finding that openness of open innovation also applies to the commercialization phase is too often neglected by researchers and policy makers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1007/s00168-012-0509-1. (AN: 86402002)
Cluster Facilitation from a Cluster Life Cycle Perspective
By: Ingstrup, Mads Bruun; Damgaard, Torben. European Planning Studies. Apr2013, Vol. 21 Issue 4, p556-574. 19p.
Abstract: Clusters influence the way firms cooperate, organize and compete, but clusters and their related benefits rarely come spontaneously in a straight line of expansion. It is argued that clusters typically develop in accordance with a life cycle, which includes an evolutionary sequence of steps where actors from the private and public sectors are engaged and where one or more cluster facilitators are coordinating and promoting the process. In the literature, the role of cluster facilitators has almost exclusively been described as static, leaving a research gap about how this particular role changes during the life cycle of clusters. Inspired by that research gap, this paper contributes to the understanding of the relationship between cluster development and cluster facilitation. It brings forward a framework for describing and discussing the exact changes taking place in the role of cluster facilitators, including the facilitation focus, competencies and tasks that they make use of along the cluster life cycle. This investigation is based on a multiple case study consisting of nine different clusters located in Denmark. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER] DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2012.722953. (AN: 86887225)
Mechanisms of capability evolution in the Finnish forest industry cluster
By: Peltoniemi, Mirva. Journal of Forest Economics. Apr2013, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p190-205. 16p.
Abstract: In recent years researchers have shown increasing interest in capabilities as the foundation of competitive advantage in the forest industry. However, we still do not know how these capabilities change in the firms and in their interactions. Therefore we ask: through what mechanisms do capabilities evolve in the forest industry context? The study was conducted by interviewing 30 forest industry experts and the data was analyzed qualitatively. We find that the main mechanisms of capability evolution include capability gaps, capability selection, capability development and capability outcomes. The study contributes through a rich description of capability evolution and by identifying theoretically meaningful mechanisms through which capability evolution takes place. Furthermore, several implications for practitioners are presented. [Copyright &y& Elsevier] DOI: 10.1016/j.jfe.2013.02.001. (AN: 86886632)
A Stakeholder Approach to Branding Clusters: Pointers to a Research Agenda
By: Kasabov, Edward; Sundaram, Usha. Regional Studies. Apr2013, Vol. 47 Issue 4, p530-543. 14p.
Abstract: KasabovE. and SundaramU. A stakeholder approach to branding clusters: pointers to a research agenda,Regional Studies. This paper addresses gaps in the research of clusters and place brands by proposing the analysis of clusters as place brands and arguing for the adoption of stakeholder management approaches for such a purpose. Analysis should also recognize the role of diverse stakeholders with potentially incompatible interests in cluster branding initiatives and the associated, processual issues of power application, discord and disagreement in clusters. By addressing these issues, two areas of academic enquiry, clusters and place branding, that share common object and aims of enquiry but which rarely recognize one another can be integrated. The call for a combined look at the two areas is driven by a belief in their complementarities and common inadequacies, and it provides an integrative platform, a dialogical platform as a theoretically enriched basis upon which to open up future research avenues. KasabovE. and SundaramU. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER] DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2011.631907. (AN: 86360978)