17 December 2014

This monthly selection of articles has been carried out by Philippe Gugler and Michael Keller, the Center for Competitiveness, University of Fribourg. A full selection of the previous articles is available here.

Relations among Clusters

By : Ren Lu andTorger Reve. European Planning Studies, published online, 06 Dec 2014.

Abstract: « Many papers on economic geography have analysed industrial clusters, but few have addressed the relations among clusters. This paper discusses three types of relations among clusters to better understand why they occur and the roles that human resources, capital, knowledge and markets play in such relations. It provides theoretical ideas, empirical illustrations and suggestions for future research on the relations among clusters in a globalized economy.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


Influence of culture and governance structure on leadership behaviour of cluster managers and implications for cluster management effectiveness

By : Carola Jungwirth and Susanne Ruckdäschel. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 470 - 492.

Abstract: « The purpose of this paper is to investigate leadership behaviour, its effectiveness, and certain influence factors on leadership behaviour in regional clusters that are led by a specifically created cluster management. Using a sequential mixed methods design, i.e., the combination of qualitative and quantitative research with the same sample, we analyse leadership behaviour of 85 cluster managers from the USA, England, Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Leadership behaviour is classified according to three categories, namely empowering, mobilising, and embracing. Generally, empowering seems to have the most important influence on the effectiveness of the cluster management due to an increase in the number of member companies and a higher member satisfaction. The influence of culture and governance structure on leadership behaviour is depicted. Results show that there are differences in leadership behaviours of cluster managers in the Anglo-American and the Germanic European culture but not according to different governance modes.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


Regional Advantage of Cluster Development: A Case Study of the San Diego Biotechnology Cluster

By : Sang-Tae Kim. European Planning Studies, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 238-261, 2015.

Abstract: « The concept of “clusters” has become central to regional economic development strategies, especially in the high-technology and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have examined the significance of industrial clusters and their components, but comparatively less attention has been directed towards understanding the roots and processes of industrial localization. In particular, emerging biotechnology clusters such as that in San Diego have not drawn adequate scholarly attention given their policy implications with regard to clustering and regional development. Based on in-depth interviews, historical archives and participatory observations, this paper examines how the San Diego biotechnology cluster emerged and grew into an entrepreneurial habitat that has nurtured hundreds of biotechnology companies that have produced a series of innovative products. The author suggests that the regional context of the existence of a number of small biotechnology companies rather than a group of large firms, a continuous flow of talent, and leadership that fosters collaborations have been critical in promoting knowledge creation, circulation and accumulation, which are essential to spawning startups. The regional advantage of San Diego in stimulating entrepreneurship and innovation lies in its edge in creating and exploiting knowledge and practices through its entrepreneurs' robust interactions and participation in local communities of practice.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Local clusters of SOEs, POEs, and FIEs, international experience, and the performance of foreign firms operating in emerging economies

By : Tsai-Ju Liao. International Business Review, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66–76, 2015.

Abstract: « Drawing on the institutional perspective, this study provides an empirical framework for analyzing how clusters within local institutional environments, along with experience derived from international environments, influence the performance of foreign firms operating in emerging economies. Analyzing a sample of 943 Taiwanese manufacturing firms investing in China, this study found that choosing to locate in proximity to a cluster of privately owned enterprises (POEs) has a U-shaped relationship with the performance of foreign firms, and that choosing to locate close to a cluster of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) from the same home country has an inverted U-shaped relationship with the performance of foreign firms. However, choosing to locate within a cluster of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has no significant effect. Further analysis confirms that the positive impact of a business group's international experience in a less developed country is greater than that of a business group's international experience in a developed country.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Policies for Creative Clusters: A Comparison between the Video Game Industries in Melbourne and Montreal

By : Sebastien Darchen and Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay. European Planning Studies, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 311-331, 2015.

Abstract: « This paper analyses whether the video game industries in the main video game hubs in Australia and Canada have the attributes of creative clusters. Three components are analysed: (1) The significance of cross-fertilization with other creative fields in the emergence and growth of the cluster; (2) The benefits of clustering; (3) The role of policies in the maturation of those clusters. The case studies included are the most notable video game clusters in Canada and Australia: Montreal and Melbourne. The research methods applied are semi-directed interviews with policy advisors and game developers in each context. As an outcome of this research, its findings reveal that the video game industry in Melbourne cannot yet be qualified as a creative cluster but is rather still very much embedded in a technology culture. In Montreal, the cluster is more mature and presents the attributes of a creative cluster, as there are interrelations between the various actors of the cluster, and with other creative activities. In both contexts the impact of policies on the maturation of the cluster is limited; rather, attaining a critical mass of video game companies is necessary for cross-fertilization to occur.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


The Emerging Clusters Model: A tool for identifying emerging technologies across multiple patent systems

By : Anthony Breitzman and Patrick Thomas. Research Policy, Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 195–205, 2015.

Abstract: « Emerging technologies are of great interest to a wide range of stakeholders, but identifying such technologies is often problematic, especially given the overwhelming amount of information available to analysts and researchers on many subjects. This paper describes the Emerging Clusters Model, which uses advanced patent citation techniques to locate emerging technologies in close to real time, rather than retrospectively. The model covers multiple patent systems, and is designed to be extensible to additional systems. This paper also describes the first large scale test of the Emerging Clusters Model. This test reveals that patents in emerging clusters consistently have a significantly higher impact on subsequent technological developments than patents outside these clusters. Given that these emerging clusters are defined as soon as a given time period ends, without the aid of any forward-looking information, this suggests that the Emerging Clusters Model may be a useful tool for identifying interesting new technologies as they emerge.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


University–Industry Knowledge Transfer and Network Patterns in Romania: Does Knowledge Supply Fit SMEs' Regional Profiles?

By : Cristina Maria Serbanica, Daniela Luminita Constantin and Gabriela Dragan. European Planning Studies, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 292-310, 2015.

Abstract: « Universities' potential to contribute to regional value creation has been extensively discussed so far and significant literature has been devoted to celebrated cases in highly industrialized and developed countries. Assuming that it would be misleading to generalize from “exceptional” cases, some authors have focused their attention specifically on the influence of universities in less developed areas regions and countries, where university–industry relations are far from being a Triple Helix. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of university–industry knowledge transfer (KT) in Romania, a post-communist country with relatively weak regional innovation performances, except for the capital region Bucharest-Ilfov. The purpose of the study is to construct an index to compare university–industry KT across the eight Romanian regions. Data to be aggregated are collected from 90 Romanian higher education institutions and refer to their KT potential in terms of human, financial and relational inputs, outputs and outcomes (patent applications, new products and services, spin-offs and commercial income). Finally, universities' regional KT performances are compared to small and medium enterprises territorial patterns and issuing policy implications are discussed.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


Compact organizational space and technological catch-up: Comparison of China's three leading automotive groups

By : Kyung-Min Nam. Research Policy, Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 258–272, 2015.

Abstract: « This study examines why compact organizational space may matter for technological catch-up, through a comparison of China's leading automotive groups. The comparative analysis demonstrates that the Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) surpasses its two local rivals in terms of technological capabilities partly because the firm has managed its organizational space in close connection with intensive growth strategies at the group level. SAIC has greatly benefited from compact organizational space in building technological capabilities, as it encourages the mobilization and integration of internal resources and promotes group-wide synergy for an effective internalization of acquired assets.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


Regional Innovation Systems and Economic Performance: Between Regions and Nations

By : Christophe Carrincazeaux and Frederic Gaschet. European Planning Studies, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 262-291, 2015.

Abstract: « This article aims at assessing the diversity of regional innovation systems and their economic performance in Europe. We propose to adapt the social systems of innovation and production (SSIP) framework at the regional level by identifying the specific arrangements of each part of the innovation and production system. Three key features of European regions are investigated using this framework: the diversity of regional SSIP, the interplay of regional and national determinants of such systems, and the impact of SSIP on regional performance. We identify a typology of regional configurations resulting from the combination of scientific, technological, educational and industrial indicators, using multivariate data analysis. A variance analysis approach is then developed in order to test the existence of specific regional growth regimes. The results highlight a persistently high level of diversity of regional configurations, notably among knowledge intensive regions, but also show that national institutional settings remain of fundamental importance in shaping a number of regional configurations. A final conclusion relates to the weak correlation observed between the structural characteristics of regions and their performance over the 2003–2007 period: regional performance remains primarily shaped by national trends. Overall, the paper questions the regional dimension of these “systems”.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


Markets versus spillovers in outflows of university research

By : David C. Mowery and Arvids A. Ziedonis. Research Policy, Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 50–66, 2015.

Abstract: « A substantial body of research has examined the contributions of university research to regional economic development and technological innovation. This literature suggests that the channels through which university-based research affects regional economic or innovative activity may be divided into two broad categories—knowledge “spillovers” (i.e., positive externalities from university research) and “market-mediated” channels such as technology licensing or various types of employment relationships between academic scientists and firms. Yet little research has compared the geographic incidence of these market and nonmarket channels of interaction. This paper compares the localization of knowledge flows from university inventions through market contracts (licenses) and nonmarket “spillovers” exemplified by patent citations. We find knowledge flows through market transactions to be more geographically localized than those operating through nonmarket spillovers. Moreover, the differential effects of distance on licenses and citations are most pronounced for exclusively licensed university patents. We interpret these findings as reflecting the incomplete nature of licensing contracts and the need for licensees to maintain access to inventor knowhow for many university inventions. Such access appears to be less important for inventions that are nonexclusively licensed.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]


Do Regions Make a Difference? Regional Innovation Systems and Global Innovation Networks in the ICT Industry

By : Cristina Chaminade and Monica Plechero. European Planning Studies, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 215-237, 2015.

Abstract: « Access to global innovation networks (GINs) has been unequal across the regions of the world. While certain regions are considered knowledge hubs in GINs, others still remain marginalized; this points to the role of regional innovation systems (RISs) in the emergence and development of GINs. Using firm-level data collected through a survey and case studies in 2009–2010, this paper systematically compares the patterns of global networks in the information and communications technology industry in a selection of European, Chinese and Indian regions. The results show that GINs are more common in regions which are not organizationally and institutionally thick, suggesting that GINs may be a compensatory mechanism for weaknesses in the RIS.» [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHORS]